What is an mRNA vaccine? How is it different from past vaccines we have had in the U.S.?

The current COVID-19 vaccine candidates that are authorized for emergency use in the United States were developed using mRNA technology, which is different from vaccines the U.S. has previously used. The Center for Disease Control’s website explains more about what these are and how they work: https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/vaccines/different-vaccines/mrna.html?fbclid=IwAR0iMyaBDSeoXHRK4hgZvJkGpx-j-FsX8a5Fid2zJbA6D6tQ7TmXxd7ZnpI 

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1. What is an Emergency Use Authorization? How is safety taken into account?
2. Will the COVID-19 vaccine give me COVID-19?
3. How do vaccines work in our bodies? Are there different types?
4. What is an mRNA vaccine? How is it different from past vaccines we have had in the U.S.?
5. If I already had COVID-19, should I get vaccinated?
6. Will getting a COVID-19 vaccine cause me to test positive on COVID-19 viral tests?
7. When will I be able to get a vaccine? How will they be distributed?
8. All the research indicates that I am a high risk for contracting COVID-19, yet I am not considered eligible for the vaccine yet. How is that fair?
9. How is a vaccine developed in the U.S.? What kind of regulatory process is there to determine if it is safe and effective?
10. What is 'Operation Warp Speed'?
11. Where can I find more information on vaccine preparedness?